The tedious, time-consuming, and buggy nature of system-level simulations is exacerbated with massive MIMO. This post offers some relieve in the form of analytical expressions for downlink conjugate beamforming . These expressions enable the testing and calibration of simulators—say to determine how many cells are needed to represent an infinitely large network with some desired accuracy. The trick that makes the analysis feasible is to let the shadowing grow strong, yet the ensuing expressions capture very well the behaviors with practical shadowings.
The setting is an infinitely large cellular network where each -antenna base station (BS) serves single-antenna users. The large-scale channel gains include pathloss with exponent and shadowing having log-scale standard deviation , with the gain between the th BS and the th user served by a BS of interest denoted by . With conjugate beamforming and receivers reliant on channel hardening, the signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) at such user is 
where is the gain from the serving BS and is the share of that BS’s power allocated to user . Two power allocations can be analyzed:
- Uniform: .
- SIR-equalizing : , with the proportionality constant ensuring that . This makes . Moreover, as and grow large,
The analysis is conducted for , which makes it valid for arbitrary BS locations.
For notational compactness, let . Define as the solution to where is the lower incomplete gamma function. For , in particular, . Under a uniform power allocation, the CDF of is available in an explicit form involving the Gauss hypergeometric function (available in MATLAB and Mathematica):
where “” indicates asymptotic () equality, is such that the CDF is continuous, and
Alternatively, the CDF can be obtained by solving (e.g., with Mathematica) a single integral involving the Kummer function :
This latter solution can be modified for the SIR-equalizing power allocation as
The spectral efficiency of user is with CDF readily characterizable from the expressions given earlier. From , the sum spectral efficiency at the BS of interest can be found as Expressions for the averages and are further available in the form of single integrals.
With a uniform power allocation,
and . For the special case of , the Kummer function simplifies giving
With an equal-SIR power allocation
Application to Relevant Networks
Let us now contrast the analytical expressions (computable instantaneously and exactly, and valid for arbitrary topologies, but asymptotic in the shadowing strength) with some Monte-Carlo simulations (lengthy, noisy, and bug-prone, but for precise shadowing strengths and topologies).
First, we simulate a 500-cell hexagonal lattice with , and . Figs. 1a-1b compare the simulations for – dB with the analysis. The behaviors with these typical outdoor values of are well represented by the analysis and, as it turns out, in rigidly homogeneous networks such as this one is where the gap is largest.
For a more irregular deployment, let us next consider a network whose BSs are uniformly distributed. BSs (500 on average) are dropped around a central one of interest. For each network snapshot, users are then uniformly dropped until of them are served by the central BS. As before, , and . Figs. 2a-2b compare the simulations for dB with the analysis, and the agreement is now complete. The simulated average spectral efficiency with a uniform power allocation is b/s/Hz/user while (2) gives b/s/Hz/user.
The analysis presented in this post is not without limitations, chiefly the absence of noise and pilot contamination. However, as argued in , there is a broad operating range (– with very conservative premises) where these effects are rather minor, and the analysis is hence applicable.
 G. George, A. Lozano, M. Haenggi, “Massive MIMO forward link analysis for cellular networks,” arXiv:1811.00110, 2018.
 T. Marzetta, E. Larsson, H. Yang, and H. Ngo, Fundamentals of Massive MIMO. Cambridge University Press, 2016.
 H. Yang and T. L. Marzetta, “A macro cellular wireless network with uniformly high user throughputs,” IEEE Veh. Techn. Conf. (VTC’14), Sep. 2014.